He died on February 19, and was buried in the family vault in the Chiesa del Carmine at Modena. View the Wikipedia article on Orazio Vecchi. Click here to search for this composer on CPDL. From ChoralWiki. Jump to: navigation , search.
Categories : births deaths Composers Renaissance composers Italian composers. The death of his wife in tried him severely. His health failed rapidly, and constitutional jealousy of the popularity of others was a source of worry and vexation. Paisiello is known to have composed 94 operas, which are known for their gracefully beautiful melodies. Another favourite vocal piece is "Chi vuol la zingarella" from I zingari in fiesta , that vividly portrays the scene of an attractive gypsy girl with its dramatic music. Paisiello also wrote a great deal of church music, including eight masses; as well as fifty-one instrumental compositions and many stand-alone songs.
Manuscript scores of many of his operas were presented to the library of the British Museum by Domenico Dragonetti. The library of the Gerolamini at Naples possesses an interesting manuscript compilation recording Paisiello's opinions on contemporary composers, and exhibiting him as a somewhat severe critic, especially of the work of Pergolesi.
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The Concise Grove Dictionary of Music  notes that "Paisiello was one of the most successful and influential opera composers of his time. Most of his over 80 operas are comic and use a simple, direct and spirited style, latterly with sharper characterization, more colorful scoring and warmer melodies features that influenced Mozart. His serious operas have less than the conventional amount of virtuoso vocal writing; those for Russia are the closest to Gluck's 'reform' approach.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article includes a list of references , but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. These could be male singers, but only if each performer is able to sing in falsetto. Because many directors would be hard-pressed to find three male singers capable of this, a group of six or more is often necessary for performance by modern-day ensembles.
Saviezza giovenile, for example, is scored for either three or six singers, depending on the gender and voice-types of the singers who were to perform the work. It is obvious from looking at the partbooks that Banchieri had either three or six singers in mind. From this, it can be determined that the work was performed either by men alone, in which case they would take the parts written in soprano and alto clefs up the octave by singing in falsetto, or as a mixed ensemble of men and women. In fact, Banchieri himself, in the prefatory notes to La Prudenza giovenile, states that it would be preferable to use such a mixed ensemble, but that three male singers would suffice.
Women were increasingly accepted as legitimate performers of secular music throughout Renaissance Italy. For the staged performance of Saviezza associated with this project, a mixed vocal ensemble of fourteen voices was used, eight women and six men. Appendix C lists the personnel involved in the Saviezza production. This decision was based on a couple of reasons, the first of which was to show the utility of the project in a choral setting. Using 29 Laura H. Notably, this occurred among women not only of noble rank, but also within the bourgeoisie.
The second reason to use a chamber-sized vocal ensemble was to allow for better dramatic representation of the individual characters via the singing voices. In theatrical madrigal comedies, the dialogue of the characters in the play is expressed in the texts of the madrigals.
Therefore, careful thought must go into deciding how the characters are to be represented, especially in a staged production of the work. If so, which singer would assume the role, including its actions and movements? What is to be done then, logistically, with the other singers who sing the madrigal, i. For the production of Saviezza, an artistic decision was made early in the planning process to use actors to pantomime the text as it was sung by the vocal ensemble. Pantomime was no stranger to audiences of sixteenth-century Italian entertainments, especially in the area of dance.
This was nothing other than the performance of plays without speaking but simply with gestures; so in the following treatise we shall say in what way it was used by the ancients and how its use could be revived by us. As much as it was possible, a different set of singers was chosen for each character, matching voice types and colors with the concept of the character. Appendix D contains a copy of those notes, as well as a chart detailing the breakdown of singers with their respective roles. During the rehearsal process, singers were encouraged to experiment with different vocal characterizations of the roles they were portraying.
Eventually, a decision was made regarding the final manner of portraying the role through the singing. This decision was based on research into the interpretation of his character, as well as his age and the large nose that is traditionally incorporated into the design of the Pantalone mask worn by the actor. Performing forces — instrumentalists Saviezza giovenile is one of only four madrigal comedies, and the only one of the theatrical type, for which Banchieri provided a separate basso continuo part.
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The melodic instrument of the continuo ensemble could be a bass viol, violone or curtal. The use of piano during performance, however, is not recommended, especially for a staged performance of the theatrical madrigal comedy. The timbre of the instrument is far too anachronistic with the sung madrigal to provide any useful purpose that would outweigh the disruption of aesthetic quality. A better alternative to piano for 32 The other madrigal comedies with a separate basso continuo part are Vivezze di Flora e Primavera , Barca di Venetia per Padova version , and Trattenimenti in villa One should keep in mind, however, that it is only for Saviezza that this becomes an issue.
All other theatrical madrigal comedies could be performed entirely without use of instruments. For the lecture-recital performance of Saviezza, harpsichord and bass viola da gamba were used as the continuo ensemble. Two Renaissance recorders and a percussionist were also included in the consort, primarily to play with the continuo ensemble on the instrumental pieces added to the madrigal comedy.
Examples of these incidental pieces are the pavana and the galiarda that served as entrance music for characters Spirit Allegro, Curiosity and Opera. Additionally, the recorders were used for brief, newly composed ritornelli inserted in two of the sung madrigals. These ritornelli were inserted to facilitate the movement of actors on the stage during the songs.
The ritornelli also provided textural variety within the vocal works. Unfortunately, in the case of the theatrical madrigal comedy, no performing edition exists that presents an English translation of the works, singable or otherwise. As of the date of this document, there are a handful of recordings on the market with liner notes containing an English version of the text, but these must be carefully studied to ascertain whether they are accurate translations.
In addition, many translations provided in recordings are copyrighted, and permission must be obtained before using them in printed programs. After thorough investigation of the intriguing argument over whether madrigal comedies were staged, it was decided that the madrigal comedy production would involve a staged performance. The preface to La Prudenza giovenile, the madrigal comedy that was reworked by Banchieri and retitled Saviezza giovenile, contains extensive performance directions, including many on the aspects of staging.
Unfortunately, only one part-book of this work survives, so a complete transcription of the music is impossible. Therefore, Saviezza giovenile was selected for performance instead. A significant difference between the two versions of the same basic madrigal comedy, is that in Saviezza, Banchieri did not include the specific performance indications found in the preface to Prudenza. The following is an excerpt from the Prudenza preface that includes those performance instructions. It should be sung with pauses and gracefully, anticipating the non-Tuscan words, and some few harmonic novelties, and that should be enough.
The Rule for Performing the Charming and Novel Work Titled Prudenza giovenile, as Ordered by the Two Performers Called Opera and Curiosity If you wish to perform the said comedy musically, it should be done in a room that is not very large, and as closed as possible so that the voices and instruments may be better enjoyed. And in a corner of this room put a couple of large carpets on the floor, along with a perspective set with two buildings, which will render a delightful surrounding.
In this scene place two chairs, one on the right and one on the left.
Behind the singers will be a delightful ensemble of lutes, harpsichords, or other instruments, tuned at choir pitch. At the top of the set may be sewn a large cloth that will serve to cover [hide] the singers and instrumentalists, and by the following rules the play may proceed. Be certain that the singers and actors, beforehand, look over the music, text and rhymes, everything that is new [to them], and the non-Tuscan words.
The singers will sing from their books as they will not be visible , and if singing in falsetto three will do, although it would be better to have six: two sopranos, two tenors, alto and bass, singing and remaining silent according to the moment, bringing spirit to the happy words, affect to the sad ones, and pronouncing with intelligible voices, [i. The actors should memorize their parts as they will be visible , using a copy of the following original, and with preparedness of place and time, accompany the music.
And it will also be necessary to have another person, uninvolved, who will assist the singers, instrumentalists and actors, as needed. Some scholars have argued that the missing preface indicates that Banchieri changed his mind about how the work should be performed.
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Specifically, this argument revolves around whether the revised work was meant to be staged. In addition, it threatens to preclude what may well be a historically accurate performance of works from the genre. As discussed earlier, Banchieri offers the potential performer instructions regarding venue, set design, properties, and even the placement of singers, instrumentalists and actors.
Perhaps the most compelling evidence to support the idea of an intended staged performance is found in his recommendation that a non-performing person should be available outside the scene to assist the singers, instrumentalists and actors, thereby making what may be one of the earliest references to a stage manager. Additionally, is it not possible that by , the year that Saviezza was published, stage performances of works were so relatively commonplace that Banchieri simply did not need to include the explicit performance indications for staging the work?
Furthermore, if Banchieri did not intend Saviezza ever to receive a staged performance, why did he omit the prefatory staging instructions from Saviezza, but not the staging indications, albeit brief and arguably lacking purpose in this specific context, found at the start of the individual madrigals?
Upon studying the manuscript, it was found that the Saviezza manuscript also contains the performance indications that Banchieri placed in the preface to Prudenza giovenile. He copied, in his own hand, all of the prefatory information from the one surviving Prudenza partbook into the manuscript of Saviezza. Why Gaspari did this is something of a mystery, and it is certainly not authentic evidence to justify a staged performance of Saviezza. It does, however, illustrate that the argument has been around for some time.
Although the subsequent publication of Prudenza giovenile as Saviezza giovenile did not include the same preface, it cannot be assumed with any certainty that the same staging recommendations should not apply to the revised work. There are no easy and forthright answers to this argument.
Evidence points to both sides, and it is thereby left to the director to make an informed decision regarding 42 Giovanni Acciai and Marco Boschini, eds. Filomena A. For this research project, a staged performance of Saviezza giovenile was decided upon, partly in order to show that madrigal comedies, at least those of the theatrical sort, may be thereby enlivened. It was also felt that a staged version of a madrigal comedy adds a dynamic that would otherwise be missing.
Performing forces — actors Choosing to produce Saviezza giovenile as a staged performance brought about a variety of staging issues that needed to be investigated and resolved. One of the most important issues involves how to tell the story of the play. Because is is not known exactly how the action of Prudenza was portrayed, that is, by singers or actors, a director must weigh all options in light of the particular performing circumstances.
A madrigal comedy consists of polyphonic music, that is, songs for more than one voice.
MAURIZIO CAZZATI - Maurizio Cazzati, Anne Schnoebelen - Google книги
In a staged performance, the delivery of dialogue by more than one singer is problematic, especially if only singers and instrumentalists are used in the production. Who is to take primary responsibility for representing the character involved? One option is to have a designated singer represent the character and the other singers involved in the madrigal hidden from few or in the background of the scene. This option opens the door for the director and production team to employ a highly creative approach when designing the production.
Another option for the performance of the theatrical madrigal comedy is to use a set of actors, separate from the singers, to pantomime the action implied by the text. Although this increased the number of participants in the project, thereby adding to the complexity of the production, the choice to take this approach with the performance of Saviezza was based on a number of factors, including 1 an aesthetically based, historically informed vision of the work, 2 an interest to investigate the dynamic brought about by the addition of actors to the production, 3 the desire to incorporate an interdisciplinary approach to the production, in keeping with the goals of the lecture- recital project, and 4 the ability to aid the rehearsal process by allowing acting and music rehearsals to coexist separately, knowing that utilizing an interdisciplinary approach would likely result in a variety of scheduling concerns brought about by hectic class and work schedules.
Production team and crew Theatrical madrigal comedies, seen in the context of a staged performance, represent a form of music theater. This brings about a host of complexities that rarely exist with a concertized performance. On the other hand, an fully staged production may include costumed singers, instrumentalists, actors and even dancers.
In addition, the performance may take place in a space capable of holding painted sets and furniture properties, and one that also allows for the incorporation of other design elements, such as lighting and sound. If a director chooses to go with a fully staged production, a production team, also known as the creative team, and technical crew will be necessary. Typically, the members of the production team for a musico-dramatic production are the producer often the same person as the director , stage director, assistant stage director, music director, choreographer, set designer, costume designer, lighting designer and sound designer if required.
Regardless of the size of the production and creative team, a technical crew is necessary. This crew may be as small as a single person to provide support in a variety of ways, from stage management to individual assistance for the actors and musicians. Notably, this role, if occupied by one person, would bear a unique similarity to the assistant Banchieri specified as necessary in his preface to Prudenza giovenile. Resources on the technical aspects of staging a musico-dramatic production, such as a madrigal comedy, are available to assist a fledgling director.
The bibliography of this document lists a few works that might prove helpful in this regard. Finally, one should never forget the power of reaching out to others active in the same or related field. Sharing ideas regarding the desire to produce a madrigal comedy performance may well result in fruitful networking and lead to avenues of potential collaboration. The current author, in doctoral residency at the University of Arizona, chose to explore this collaboration within the university community, specifically the School of Music and School of Theatre Arts.
Fortunately, efforts were successful to recruit people from these areas to assist with the Saviezza production. It is felt that, with the recruitment of actors, designers, crew, singers and instrumentalists from these areas, the project showed that 1 there is interest out there to explore the neglected art form of the Renaissance madrigal comedy, and 2 a successful collaboration, both interdisciplinary and community-wide, may be achieved in the production of a work like Saviezza giovenile.
A consideration of theatre, music, and cultural history during the planning of any musico-dramatic production is an inherent responsibility of those in charge of the production, especially at the director level. Dramaturgs, who work closely with stage directors, have engaged in such activities for years.
It has been a rewarding endeavor to engage in the process of researching the madrigal comedy and to stage the associated production of Saviezza giovenile. Doing so resulted in a distinct pleasure from the investigation of this rare form of early music theater, and it was a joy to raise awareness of its brief existence and to bring it to life in this setting. Florence: Studio per edizioni scelte, Edited by Luigi Torchi. Edited by Robert Eitner. New York: Broude, reprint of ed. Unless otherwise noted in brackets, all part-books are held.
For a listing of library sigla and part-book abbreviations, see the end of this appendix. Includes the libretto in Italian with German translation. Edited by Bonaventura Somma. Rome: Edizioni De Santis, Stuttgart: Cornetto-Verlag, Edited by Renzo Bez. Series: Bibliotheca musica Bononiensis. Sezione IV, No. Forni, Luigi Torchi, pub. Edited by Giuseppe Vecchi.
Edited by Riccardo Allorto. Milan: Le Chant du Monde, Series title: Musiche antiche. Because this is an impractical method of performance for most modern ensembles, the number included in this chart represents the minimum number of singers required for performance by mixed performing groups. However, because more than one character is implied, both by the use of the plural form of the word in the list of characters, and in the text of the song itself, three actors are included in the number of characters given in this chart.
Therefore, you will notice in the chart below that you are matched with one or more characters. During the preparation of the music, I will be coaching you to use various colors in your voice to enable more effective characterizations. In other words, you will be acting with your voices! Hopefully this will be a rewarding challenge for you.
Character Assignments Use this chart when looking at the score to determine the character s you are portraying and the madrigals you are singing. Directed by Edwin Loehrer. Nuova Era , originally recorded Directed by Deigo Fasolis. Naxos 8. Il Festino nella sera del giovedi grasso avanti cena. Concerto italiano. Directed by Rinaldo Alessandrini. Opus OPS , The Festino of Adriano Banchieri. Produced and directed by Eugene Enrico and David Smeal. Delitiae Musicae.
Directed by Marco Longhini. Stradivarius STR , Accord , originally recorded Saviezza giovenile. See La Pazzia senile, Vivezze di flora e primavera. See Il Barca di Venetia per Padova. Il Zabaione musicale.
See Il Festino, Croce, Giovanni. Collegio vocale e strumentale "Euterpe". Directed by Antonio Eros Negri. Triaca musicale. See Mascarate piacevole, Striggio, Alessandro. Cicalamento delle donne al bucato. Vecchi, Orazio. I Fagiolini. Directed by Robert Hollingworth. Cappella Musicale di Petronio di Bologna. Directed by Sergio Vartolo. Ensemble Clement Janequin. Directed by Dominique Visse. Harmonia Mundi HMC , Le Veglie di Siena. Introductory canzonetta tutti ensemble, Vattene canzonette 3.
Scene 1 Gratiano, O paurazzo Duttor Scene 2 Fortunato, Sospirando, e piangendo Scene 3 Aurora, Io son bella e favorita Scene 4 Gratiano and Aurora, O dalla casa Scene 1 Leandro, Dolorosi tormenti Scene 2 Leandro and Isabella, Cara Isabella mia Scene 3 Isabella, Questo mio core Scene 4 Gratiano and Isabella, Cosa fat Isabella Scene 1 Fortunato to Aurora, Vaga, e gentile Aurora Scene 2 Aurora to Fortunato, Fortunato mio bene Scene 3 Pantalone, Amor laro cornuo Scene 4 Gratiano and Pantalone, Msier Piattelon For the lecture-recital production of Saviezza, the original order of the prologue and first intermedio was kept.
It was felt that doing so achieved a better dramatic flow. The first intermedio takes place, in which three men from Lecco sing a humorous song in dialect. After the intermedio, Allegro briefly introduces the plot to the audience and disappears as Graziano enters and begins Act I of the play.
Graziano, alone, professes his love for Aurora and exits. Fortunato enters and professes his love for Aurora. Fortunato exits and Aurora appears on her balcony, extolling her own virtues and voicing her own love for Fortunato. Graziano appears and enters into a dialog with Aurora. He tells her he is enamored with her, but she scoffs at his amorous intent. The second intermedio takes place next, in which three dottore sing a nonsensical song in spagnoletto style.
Act II begins with Leandro, alone, lamenting the tortures of his love for Isabella. Isabella enters and silently listens as Leandro voices his affection for her. Isabella then sings of her love for Leandro while he listens, after which the two lovers exit. Graziano encounters his daughter, Isabella, on the street and informs her that he has promised her hand in marriage to Pantalone. She flies into a rage and protests, at which point Graziano berates her and sends her home to her room.
Next is the third Intermedio, in which three youths play a game. Act III begins with Fortunato declaring his love to Aurora, after which she tells him of her own feelings toward him. Pantalone likes the idea and the two go their separate ways, having made a huge blunder. Allegro returns to the stage and presents a summation of the play: the wisdom of youth has prevailed over the folly of old age. Su su al cantar, udite in nuove usanze You will be moved to sing, hearing in a new Questi terzetti pien di stravaganze. That being the case, neither the musician with his notes, nor the poet with his rhymes, by themselves, may render this impression of perfection to the ears, whereas they do so together when especially it is a cultivated and expert hand that joins them.
It common to recite poetry on a stage using music, in order to bring perfection, but now in this theatre you will not hear them separately, but music and poetry will be united, in order to offer you an elaborate play. This is a new invention to experience, but rest assured that it will offer more than a little pleasure, for it may be said that all new things bring delight. But here is Curiosity, my faithful companion, sent by these able musicians to assist with the execution of this diverse and virtuous entertainment.
At this point Curiosity enters, ostentatiously dressed, and anxiously discusses the subject with Opera. Curiosity: What invention of the Muse is this?